(Last update 2001.02.14 by Jacek M. Holeczek )
Please find below some informations, that I (Jacek M. Holeczek
) was able to collect, about maps of Middle
European countries that belonged to the Warsaw Treaty Pact and their
relation to WGS84 and UTM (from different sources). These countries
span across about three 6 degrees zones in longitude range from 12.0
East to 30.0 East.
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Let's start with "military related" maps of the Warsaw Treaty Pact.
They use the so called System 1942 (S-42) together with the Krassovsky
1940 ellipsoid, Pulkovo 1942 (S-42) map datum and Transverse Mercator
(Gauss-Krueger type) Grid in zones 6 degrees wide.
The Reference Ellipsoid is :
Krassovsky (Krassovskiy) 1940
The grid is (S-42) :
Transverse Mercator (Gauss-Krueger type) in zones 6 degrees wide:
in longitude range 12.0 East - 18.0 East : zone 3
in longitude range 18.0 East - 24.0 East : zone 4
in longitude range 24.0 East - 30.0 East : zone 5
Latitude of Origin: 0.0 North
Longitude of Origin:
in longitude range 12.0 East - 18.0 East : 15.0 East
in longitude range 18.0 East - 24.0 East : 21.0 East
in longitude range 24.0 East - 30.0 East : 27.0 East
Scale Factor at the Central Meridian: 1.0
Units to meters conversion: 1.0 (GPS set to metric system !!!)
False Easting at Origin:
in longitude range 12.0 East - 18.0 East : +3500000.0m
in longitude range 18.0 East - 24.0 East : +4500000.0m
in longitude range 24.0 East - 30.0 East : +5500000.0m
False Northing at Origin: 0.0m
In Hungary the map datum is S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +28.0
delta Y: -121.0
delta Z: -77.0
In Poland the map datum is S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +23.0
delta Y: -124.0
delta Z: -82.0
Note also that below you can find much more informations about maps
available in Poland.
In Czechoslovakia the map datum is S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +26.0
delta Y: -121.0
delta Z: -78.0
Note that most of touristic 1:50000 maps in the Czech and Slovak
Republics are based on military maps and use the S-42 system, but
(some ?) Czechoslovakia maps prior to 1 JAN 1993 may be based on the
Bessel 1841 ellipsoid with the S-JTSK map datum and some recent
1:100000 and 1:200000 maps use WGS84.
In Latvia the map datum is S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +24.0
delta Y: -124.0
delta Z: -82.0
In Albania the map datum is S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +24.0
delta Y: -130.0
delta Z: -92.0
In Romania the map datum is S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +28.0
delta Y: -121.0
delta Z: -77.0
Note here that (magic numbers define reference ellipsoids, see below) :
delta A = 6378137 - 6378245
delta F (x10000) = ( 1/298.257223563 - 1/298.3 ) * 10000
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Below you can find some informations about coordinate systems used on
maps in Poland (Europe). Please note that most of the data of these
systems are still kept secret. Approximate values given here were
collected from different publicly available sources, mainly WWW pages,
but also Internet News, books and maps themselves. That means that the
numbers given below should not really be fully trusted.
Most of touristic maps available in Poland (Europe) are based on
non-GPS-friendly grids and map datums. Additionally, usually it is not
written on the map which system it uses, and they do not provide any
coordinates at all. However, if your map does, then they come from
one of the following systems.
**** GUGiK 1980 ****
A lot of publicly available maps in scales 1:10000 - 1:500000 are
based on this system. One of the biggest publishers of these maps is
Przedsiebiorstwo Geodezyjno - Kartograficzne (PGK) Katowice Sp. z o.o.,
ul. Kossutha 9, 40-950 Katowice, Poland. In order to get more
informations (and maybe also buy these maps) you can also contact the
"Centralny Osrodek Dokumentacji Geodezyjnej i Kartograficznej"
ul. Zurawia 3/5, 00-926 Warsaw, Poland .
This system uses the quasi-stereographic projection of the pre-WW-II
Wojskowy Instytut Geograficzny (WIG). The Latitude of Origin is 52 10
00 N and the Longitude of Origin is 19 10 00 E. The scale factor is
designed to cancel any distortion in distance at a distance of 215 km
from the Origin. This means, to my best knowledge, that the scale
factor is equal to 0.999714285, which gives a reduction in distance
from 20 cm / 1 km around Swinoujscie (North-West of Poland) to +90 cm
/ 1 km around Lesko (South-East of Poland). The Reference Ellipsoid is
Krassovsky 1940 (the same as in S-42 above). Topicality of these maps
is usually 1975 - 1995, and they cover the whole Poland.
The vertical map datum (heights above the sea level) is, most
probably, based on the Kronsztadt (the exact "year" is unspecified)
standard.
These maps, typically in 1:100000 scale, provide sometimes geographic
coordinates (latitude/longitude), geodetic coordinates (kilometer-grid)
are missing.
The Reference Ellipsoid is (the same as in S-42 above) :
Krassovsky 1940
The grid is (if present, of course) :
Lat/Lon
The map datum is (the same as in S-42 above) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +23.0
delta Y: -124.0
delta Z: -82.0
(If you don't care about errors of up to 150m, you can also use the
default WGS84 map datum.)
**** System (Uklad) 1965 ****
This is the basic system used on large scale topographical maps, in
scales 1:500 - 1:50000, for purposes of civilian geodesy in Poland.
They are copyrighted by the "Glowny Geodeta Kraju".
In order to get informations (and maybe also buy these maps) you can
contact the "Centralny Osrodek Dokumentacji Geodezyjnej i Kartograficznej"
ul. Zurawia 3/5, 00-926 Warsaw, Poland .
The whole Poland is divided into five irregular zones (called Strefa).
In four of them the "Quasi-Stereographic" Grid (Rousilhe Oblique
Stereographic) is used, and in the fifth, the Gauss-Krueger Transverse
Mercator Grid is used. The Zone (Strefa) number is encoded in the ID
number of the map. These maps are numbered XYZ.A (1:50000), XYZ.AB
(1:25000), XYZ.ABC (1:10000), ... . The leading digit "X" (which can
only be 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) says which grid (Zone, Strefa) is used on the
particular map in question. Additionally one needs to say here that,
for areas lying close to borders of zones, there exist maps in all
neighbouring grids.
Zone (Strefa) 1 covers the following provinces : Biala Podlaska,
Eastern Bielsko, Chelm, Kielce, Krakow, Krosno, Lodz, Lublin, Nowy
Sacz, Piotrkow, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Sieradz, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow
and Zamosc.
Zone (Strefa) range in Latitude range in Longitude
1 (Little Poland) 48 55 00 - 52 20 00 N 18 00 00 - 24 10 00 E
The Reference Ellipsoid is (the same as in S-42 above) :
Krassovsky 1940
The grid is (Polish National System 1965 / Zone 1) :
Stereographic, Oblique (Rousilhe type)
Latitude of Origin: 50.625 North (50 37 30 N)
Longitude of Origin: 21.08333 East (21 05 00 E)
Scale Factor at the Central Meridian: 0.9998
Units to meters conversion: 1.0 (GPS set to metric system !!!)
False Easting at Origin: +4637000.0m
False Northing at Origin: +5467000.0m
The map datum is (the same as in S-42 above) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +23.0
delta Y: -124.0
delta Z: -82.0
Zone (Strefa) 2 covers the following provinces : Bialystok, Ciechanow,
Lomza, Olsztyn, Ostroleka, Plock, Siedlce, Skierniewice, Suwalki and
Warszawa.
Zone (Strefa) range in Latitude range in Longitude
2 (Varmia and Masuria) 51 20 00 - 54 30 00 N 19 00 00 - 24 00 00 E
The Reference Ellipsoid is (the same as in S-42 above) :
Krassovsky 1940
The grid is (Polish National System 1965 / Zone 2) :
Stereographic, Oblique (Rousilhe type)
Latitude of Origin: 53.00194 North (53 00 07 N)
Longitude of Origin: 21.50278 East (21 30 10 E)
Scale Factor at the Central Meridian: 0.9998
Units to meters conversion: 1.0 (GPS set to metric system !!!)
False Easting at Origin: +4603000.0m
False Northing at Origin: +5806000.0m
The map datum is (the same as in S-42 above) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +23.0
delta Y: -124.0
delta Z: -82.0
Zone (Strefa) 3 covers the following provinces : Bydgoszcz, Elblag,
Gdansk, Koszalin, Slupsk, Szczecin, Torun and Wloclawek.
Zone (Strefa) range in Latitude range in Longitude
3 (Pomerania) 52 10 00 - 54 50 00 N 14 05 00 - 20 00 00 E
The Reference Ellipsoid is (the same as in S-42 above) :
Krassovsky 1940
The grid is (Polish National System 1965 / Zone 3) :
Stereographic, Oblique (Rousilhe type)
Latitude of Origin: 53.58333 North (53 35 00 N)
Longitude of Origin: 17.00833 East (17 00 30 E)
Scale Factor at the Central Meridian: 0.9998
Units to meters conversion: 1.0 (GPS set to metric system !!!)
False Easting at Origin: +3501000.0m
False Northing at Origin: +5999000.0m
The map datum is (the same as in S-42 above) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +23.0
delta Y: -124.0
delta Z: -82.0
Zone (Strefa) 4 covers the following provinces : Gorzow, Jelenia Gora,
Kalisz, Konin, Legnica, Leszno, Opole, Pila, Poznan, Walbrzych,
Wroclaw and Zielona Gora.
Zone (Strefa) range in Latitude range in Longitude
4 (Lower Silesia) 48 45 00 - 53 20 00 N 14 15 00 - 19 05 00 E
The Reference Ellipsoid is (the same as in S-42 above) :
Krassovsky 1940
The grid is (Polish National System 1965 / Zone 4) :
Stereographic, Oblique (Rousilhe type)
Latitude of Origin: 51.67083 North (51 40 15 N)
Longitude of Origin: 16.67222 East (16 40 20 E)
Scale Factor at the Central Meridian: 0.9998
Units to meters conversion: 1.0 (GPS set to metric system !!!)
False Easting at Origin: +3703000.0m
False Northing at Origin: +5627000.0m
The map datum is (the same as in S-42 above) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +23.0
delta Y: -124.0
delta Z: -82.0
Zone (Strefa) 5 covers the following provinces : Western Bielsko,
Czestochowa and Katowice.
Zone (Strefa) range in Latitude range in Longitude
5 (Upper Silesia) 49 20 00 - 51 20 00 N 18 20 00 - 19 40 00 E
The Reference Ellipsoid is (the same as in S-42 above) :
Krassovsky 1940
The grid is (Polish National System 1965 / Zone 5) :
Transverse Mercator (Gauss-Krueger type)
Latitude of Origin: 0.0 North
Longitude of Origin: 18.95833 East (18 57 30 E)
Scale Factor at the Central Meridian: 0.999983
Units to meters conversion: 1.0 (GPS set to metric system !!!)
False Easting at Origin: +237000.0m
False Northing at Origin: -4700000.0m (can also be +5300000.0m)
The map datum is (the same as in S-42 above) :
delta A: -108.0
delta F (x10000): +0.00480795
delta X: +23.0
delta Y: -124.0
delta Z: -82.0
The False Northing at Origin for the Zone (Strefa) 5 should be set to
-4700000.0m, but some GPS receivers are not able to accept negative
values for this parameter. If one sets +5300000.0m, one gets this
coordinate shifted by 10000000.0m, which is not a problem to "manually
subtract in mind" (if one has it, of course).
Topicality of these maps is usually very good. The vertical map datum
(heights above the sea level) is based on the Pulkovo 1942 standard.
Please note that maps using System 1965 provide only the LAST 6 DIGITS
of geodetic coordinates (00xxxxxx m). The LEADING 2 DIGITS (xx000000 m)
are not present on the map. That means that "thousands-" and
"tens-of-thousands-" of kilometers are missing (they are unimportant).
The GPS receiver, however, provides/needs ALL DIGITS while
transforming coordinates from/to WGS84 !!!
**** System(s) 1992 ****
Topographical maps in scales 1:10000 - 1:50000 sometimes use the
Polish National System 1992/19 (based on the European Standard ETRF-89).
These maps are made by "The National Geodetic and Cartographic Service"
("Panstwowa Sluzba Geodezyjna i Kartograficzna") and copyrighted by
the "Glowny Geodeta Kraju". They explicitly state the system used as
"Panstwowy uklad wspolrzednych geodezyjnych 1992".
The Reference Ellipsoid is :
GRS 1980
The grid is (Polish National System 1992/19) :
Transverse Mercator (Gauss-Krueger type) in 10 degrees wide zone
Latitude of Origin: 0.0 North
Longitude of Origin: 19.0 East
Scale Factor at the Central Meridian: 0.9993
Units to meters conversion: 1.0 (GPS set to metric system !!!)
False Easting at Origin: +500000.0m
False Northing at Origin: -5300000.0m (can also be +4700000.0m)
The map datum is :
delta A: 0.0
delta F (x10000): -0.00000016
delta X: 0.0
delta Y: 0.0
delta Z: 0.0
Note here that (magic numbers define reference ellipsoids, see above) :
delta A = 6378137 - 6378137
delta F (x10000) = ( 1/298.257223563 - 1/298.257222101 ) * 10000
The False Northing at Origin should be set to -5300000.0m, but some GPS
receivers are not able to accept negative values for this parameter. If
one sets +4700000.0m, one gets this coordinate shifted by 10000000.0m,
which is not a problem to "manually subtract in mind" (if one has it, of
course). Topicality of these maps is usually 1992 - 1994, but they don't
cover as much area of Poland as "military" based maps mentioned below.
The vertical map datum (heights above the sea level) is based on the
Kronsztadt '86 standard.
In order to get informations (and maybe also buy these maps) you can
contact the "Centralny Osrodek Dokumentacji Geodezyjnej i Kartograficznej"
ul. Zurawia 3/5, 00-926 Warsaw, Poland .
One needs to say here that there are also maps that use Polish Systems
1992/15, 1992/18, 1992/21, 1992/24 (zones are 3 degrees wide), but
they are only used on maps with scales 1:1000 - 1:10000. I haven't
found any good informations about these systems. To my best knowledge,
they are very similar to the System 1992/19 described above and the
scale factor may possibly be equal to 0.999935.
**** System 1942 (S-42) ****
Topographical maps based on "military" maps, typically in 1:100000
scale (also 1:50000 - 1:200000).
They are called "Mapa topograficzna Polski, wydanie turystyczne", and the
publishers are military related "Zarzad Topograficzny Sztabu Gen. WP",
"Panstwowe Przedsiebiorstwo Geodezyjno - Kartograficzne (KART)" and
"Wojskowe Zaklady Kartograficzne (WZKart)". As usually, they do not
specify on the map which system it uses, but it is clear that they use
S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) together with the Krassovsky 1940 ellipsoid (see above
how to convince your GPS to give output in these coordinates). Topicality
of these maps is usually 1982 - 1984, and they cover most of Poland.
The vertical map datum (heights above the sea level) is based on the
Pulkovo 1942 standard.
You should note yourself these "military" publishers ("WZKart"). They
published also other maps which use the same coordinate system. Sometimes
the grid "lines" are on the map, but the grid "description" is not
present. You need to write these magic numbers yourself (just take one or
two reference points with your GPS and you will be able to learn which
grid line means what number). Some recent maps coming from these
publishers are marked "GPS ready" - they provide Lat/Lon coordinates in
WGS84, unfortunately there are no UTM (nor S-42) coordinates present.
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Below you can find some reference data of projections, grids,
ellipsoids and map datums related to maps of Middle European countries
that belonged to the Warsaw Treaty Pact.
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2-6.3.1 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid.
Projection: Transverse Mercator (Gauss-Kruger type) in zones 6 degrees wide.
Ellipsoid:
International
Bessel 1841
World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84)
Geodetic Reference System (GRS 1980, GRS 80)
Longitude of Origin: Central meridian (CM) of each projection zone (3, 9,
15, 21, 27, 33, 39, 45, 51, 57, 63, 69, 75, 81, 87, 93, 99, 105, 111, 117,
123, 129, 135, 141, 147, 153, 159, 165, 171, 177, E and W).
Latitude of Origin: O (the Equator).
Unit: Meter.
False Northing: 0 meters at the Equator for the Northern Hemisphere;
10,000,000 meters at the Equator for the Southern Hemisphere.
False Easting: 500,000 meters at the CM of each zone.
Scale Factor at the Central Meridian: 0.9996.
Grid Zone Designations: See Chapter 3 and Appendix B.
Latitude Limits of System: From 80S to 84N.
Limits of Projection Zones: The zones are bounded by meridians, the
longitudes of which are multiples of 6 east and west of the prime
meridian.
Overlap: On large-scale maps and trig lists, the data for each zone,
datum, or ellipsoid overlaps the adjacent zone, datum, or ellipsoid a
minimum of 40 kilometers. The UTM grid extends to 8030'S and 8430'N,
providing a 30-minute overlap with the UPS grid.
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4-1.1.9 The Gauss-Kruger (GK) projection and grids are the basis for the
UTM grid system. Within the scope of this manual, there are three GK
systems that may be encountered even though the Defense Mapping Agency
uses none of them. The Russian GK grid is discussed in Department of the
Army Field Manual No. 34-85, Conversion of Warsaw pact Grids to UTM Grids.
General specifications are as follows:
Projection: Transverse Mercator in zones 6 degrees wide.
Ellipsoid: Krassovskiy (a = 6,378,245 meters, 1/f = 298.3) (U.S.S.R.,
China to 1981).
Geodetic Reference System of China 1980 (a = 6,378,140 meters,
1/f = 298.257) (China from 1981).
Bessel (Germany).
Longitude of Origin: Same as the UTM.
Latitude of Origin: Same as the UTM.
Unit: Meter.
False Easting: 500,000 meter at the CM of each zone. However, the zone
number is prefixed to the false easting In most cases, i.e. the false
easting for the GK zone 7 is 7,500,000 meters.
False Northing: Same as the UTM.
Scale Factor on Central Meridian: Unity (1).
Grid Zone Designations: The zones are numbered eastward from 1 to 60
starting at the Greenwich meridian rather than the 180' meridian. In other
words, the UTM and GK zones differ by 30. Row letters are not used with
the GK systems Limits of System: The limits north and south are not
rigidly defined as with the UTM. However, the limits can be assumed to be
similar to the UTM.
Overlap: Same as the UTM.
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Reference Ellipsoids and Geodetic Datum Transformation Parameters (Local
to WGS-84) from NIMA 8350.2 4 July 1977 and MADTRAN 1 October 1996
Reference Ellipsoids
Ellipsoid Semi-major axis 1/flattening
Bessel 1841 6377397.155 299.1528128
Bessel 1841 (Namibia) 6377483.865 299.1528128
GRS 80 6378137 298.257222101
International (1924) 6378388 297.0
Krassovsky 1940 6378245 298.3
WGS 84 6378137 298.257223563
Geodetic Datum Transformation Parameters (Local to WGS-84)
(d = delta in meters; e = error estimate in meters; #S = number of
satellite measurement stations)
Datum Ellipsoid dX dY dZ Region of use eX eY eZ #s
Afgooye Krassovsky 1940 -43 -163 45 Somalia 25 25 25 1
Pulkovo 1942 Krassovsky 1940 28 -130 -95 Russia -1 -1 -1 0
S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Krassovsky 1940 28 -121 -77 Hungary 2 2 2 5
S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Krassovsky 1940 23 -124 -82 Poland 4 2 4 11
S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Krassovsky 1940 26 -121 -78 Czechoslovakia 3 3 2 6
S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Krassovsky 1940 24 -124 -82 Latvia 2 2 2 5
S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Krassovsky 1940 15 -130 -84 Kazakhstan 25 25 25 2
S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Krassovsky 1940 24 -130 -92 Albania 3 3 3 7
S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Krassovsky 1940 28 -121 -77 Romania 3 5 3 4
S-JTSK Bessel 1841 589 76 480 Czechoslovakia 4 2 3 6
(Prior 1 JAN 1993)
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